Geschichte des Dartsports

Geschichte des Dartsports

Geschichte des Dartspiels
 
Über den Ursprung des Dartspiels gibt es zwei Theorien. Beide gehen ins mittelalterliche England (13. - 14. Jahrhundert) zurück, das zu dieser Zeit die geschicktesten und gefürchtesten Bogenschützen Europas besaß.

Die eine Geschichte erzählt, dass die englische Kriegsmacht die Franzosen 1415 bei Azincourt deshalb so vernichtend schlug, weil die Soldaten vorher ausgiebig geübt hatten - und zwar mit abgebrochenen Pfeilen auf Baumscheiben. Aus diesen Baumscheiben soll sich das Logend-Board und später das Manchester-Board entwickelt haben.

Nach der zweiten Anekdote haben Bogenschützen das Dartspiel aus Bequemlichkeit erfunden, weil sie ständig üben mussten, um ihre außerordentlichen Fähigkeiten beizubehalten. Eines Tages wurde ihnen der englische Regen zuviel. Sie zogen in eine große Scheune um und warfen mit abgebrochenen Pfeilen auf die Zielscheibe.

So einleuchtend diese Geschichten auf den ersten Blick sind, weisen beide doch zwei entscheidende Fehler auf und halten einer genaueren Betrachtung nicht stand. Erstens: ein abgebrochener Pfeil hat keine Federn. Er hat keine berechenbare Flugbahn mehr und kann demnach nicht gezielt geworfen werden. Außerdem dürfte er nicht spitz und schwer genug sein, um in einer Baumscheibe stecken zu bleiben. Auch den übungswert muss man in Frage stellen. Bogenschießen und Darts Werfen haben nur das Zielen gemein, ansonsten werden andere Fertigkeiten verlangt.

Das zweite Problem ist, dass bisher keinerlei handfeste Beweise gefunden wurden, die die Existenz des Dartspiels belegen; nichts Schriftliches oder Bildliches und auch keine Darts. Wenn Dart wirklich schon damals ein Volkssport gewesen ist, müssten sich Aufzeichnungen finden lassen, wie sie von anderen Sportarten, Hobbies und Freizeitbeschäftigungen vorhanden sind. Es ist also sehr fraglich, ob die Geschichte von Dart tatsächlich bis ins Mittelalter zurück reicht. Nach Auskunft des Oxford Lexikons entstammt das englische Wort "darts" dem französischen Wort "dartes"", womit damals Pfeile und kurze Speere bezeichnet wurden. Wenn das Dartspiel in England erfunden wurde und bereits Volkssport war, warum nahm man dann dafür ein Wort aus der Sprache des Erzfeindes?

Historische Funde zeigen, dass Kampfdarts im östlichen Mittelmeerraum um 500 nach Christi benutzt wurden. Der byzantinische General Belisarius wird als ihr Erfinder benannt. Die Kampfdarts waren ca. 50 cm lange, kräftige Pfeile, die hinter der Spitze beschwert waren, damit sie besser in ihr Ziel eindringen konnten. Reiter besaßen sie als Nahkampfwaffe. Sie können aber nicht allzu erfolgreich gewesen sein, sonst hätten sich Kampfdarts stärker durchgesetzt und weiter verbreitet. Ein Nachteil war bestimmt, dass der Dart nach Gebrauch verloren war und bei einer guten Rüstung nur wenig ausrichtete; Lanzen waren hier vorteilhafter. In der englischen Geschichte gibt es jedenfalls keinerlei Hinweise darauf, dass die mittelalterlichen Bogenschützen auch Kampfdarts mit sich führten.

Fakt ist, dass Bogenschießen in England noch lange nach der Einführung der Feuerwaffen per königlichem Erlass von jedem kriegsfähigen Jüngling und Mann verlangt und späterhin über viele Jahre als sportlicher Wettbewerb auf Volksfesten und zum Zeitvertreib beibehalten wurde. Von Dart ist dabei jedoch nie die Rede gewesen. Nach einer Zeit der Vergessenheit wurde das Bogenschießen gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts als Freizeitbeschäftigung der reichen Oberschicht in Mode gebracht.

Alle diese Hinweise lassen nur einen Schluss zu: Dart ist ein modernes Spiel. Es hat sich aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach in den Industriezentren Englands während der zweiten Hälfte des letzten Jahrhunderts entwickelt. Es waren vor allen Dingen Arbeiter, die - vielleicht dem Bogenschießen der Reichen nachempfunden - Dart spielten. Der erste eindeutige Beweis der Existenz des Spiels in England ist eine Anzeige für Dartboards im "Stationer, Printer & Fancy Trades1 Register" von 1901, während 1898 in den USA das Patent für Papierflights angemeldet wurde. Beides deutet daraufhin, dass Dart zu diesem Zeitpunkt schon verbreitet gewesen sein muss.

Englische Reiseberichte aus dem frühen 20. Jahrhundert berichten von dem Spiel. Seine Popularität war jedoch nicht mit der heutigen vergleichbar und beschränkte sich hauptsächlich auf London und Gegenden im südlichen England sowie ab und an ein Board in Wales. In Schottland war Dart noch völlig unbekannt.

Bis in die frühen 30er Jahre warf man vornehmlich mit 10 cm langen Holzdarts (Durchmesser 1/2 inch = ca. 1,3 cm) mit Metallspitze und Truthahnfedern, obwohl schon 1906 ein Engländer den Metallbarrel erfand. Messingdarts setzten sich aber erst kurz vor und während des 2. Weltkriegs durch. Ende der 60er Jahre revolutionierten die Tungstenbarrels den Dartsport.

Wie genau die Einteilung und Wertung auf dem Dartboard entstanden ist, bleibt auch heute noch ein Geheimnis und für Spekulationen offen. Die meistbenutzten Boards kamen aus London, Manchester und Yorkshire, drei große Industriezentren, wo sich Dart relativ früh entwickelte. Andere Boards sind wahrscheinlich Abwandlungen, die während der Ausbreitung von Dart in die verschiedenen Provinzen entstanden. Die verschiedenen Wurfdistanzen werden sich durch unterschiedliche örtliche Begebenheiten herausgebildet haben, hauptsächlich aus Platzgründen in den engen Pubs.

Die Segmente, die kleinen Felder und die geschickte Punktverteilung, hohe Werte sind von niedrigen umgeben, Doppel- und Treble-Ring machen den Reiz des Spiels aus und erfordern Konzentration und Geschicklichkeit auch auf die kurze Entfernung. Deshalb ist es wahrscheinlicher, dass die vielzitierten Böden von Bierfässern mit den Jahresringen des Holzes tatsächlich die Vorläufer des Dartboards waren. Die Segmenteinteilung erinnert an die diagonalen Risse einer ausgetrockneten Baumscheibe. Punktverteilung und Wertung ließen spannende Spiele zu.

Ein Punkt scheint mir noch erwähnenswert. Im England der Jahrhundertwende waren Glücksspiele in der öffentlichkeit, also auch in Kneipen, unter Strafe verboten. Dart zählte ebenfalls dazu. Einem angeklagten Pubbesitzer aus Leeds gelang es 1908, dem Richter das Gegenteil zu beweisen. Er spielte im Gerichtssaal und demonstrierte überzeugend, dass keineswegs Glück, sondern Können und Genauigkeit dem Dartspiel seine Faszination geben. Von da an war Dart von der Verbotsregelung ausgenommen. Diese Veränderung der juristischen Bewertung hat bestimmt viel für die Verbreitung von Dart getan. Es ist schon erstaunlich, dass sich ein scheinbar so junger Sport wie Dart, der sich heute weltweiter Beliebtheit erfreut, so schwer in seine Anfänge zurückverfolgen läßt. Seinen Platz in der Zukunft, dem Zeitalter der Elektronik und der Computer hat sich das Spiel jedoch bereits gesichert.

 

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